The Cristalino IOCG deposit: an example of multi-stage events of hydrothermal alteration and copper mineralization

Gustavo Souza Craveiro, Roberto Perez Xavier, Raimundo Netuno Nobre Villas


The Cristalino deposit is located 40 km east of Sossego mine, Carajás. The orebody lies along a NW-SE-striking shear zone and is mainly hosted by the Neoarchean bi-modal volcanics of the Grão Pará Group. Field work and petrographic data seconded by SEM-EDS analysis allowed recognizing an early sodic metasomatism that was followed by calcic-ferric, potassic and propylitic alterations, and finally by carbonatization. The volcanic rocks were altered under deformation regimes that changed from ductile-brittle to brittle. The deposit resulted from two mineralizing stages. The early stage took place at a greater depth and produced an ore association composed chiefly of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite as disseminations, breccia and veins particularly in Ca-Fe altered rocks. The later stage occurred at a shallower depth and formed a practically magnetite- free ore association, consisting essentially of chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± hematite in breccias and veins generated mostly during the potassic alteration. These ore associations indicate that the hydrothermal system evolved with temperature decrease and increase in fO2, Cu/Fe ratio and sulfur activity. Cristalino is conceived as a multi-stage IOCG deposit similar to others lying in the Carajás E-W corridor of IOCG systems.


Iron oxide-copper-gold; Metallogenesis; Hydrothermal system; Neoarchean; Carajás Province.

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