Natural background levels and seasonal influence on groundwater chemistry of the Upper São Francisco karst region, MG, Brazil

THIAGO NOGUEIRA LUCON, ADIVANE TEREZINHA COSTA, PAULO GALVÃO, MARIANGELA GARCIA PRAÇA LEITE

Resumo


Karst aquifers are large water reservoirs that supply approximately 25% of the world population. They are also extremely sensitive to contamination, demanding knowledge on groundwater quality regarding base level conditions for the main cations and anions. Knowing the Natural Background Level (NBL) values of these waters becomes an indispensable measure to understand aquifers and hydrochemical anomalies, either from anthropogenic or geogenic origin. This paper aimed to provide a hydrochemical characterization and to propose NBL 90% values for the little-studied groundwater of the São Miguel River watershed, Upper São Francisco River, MG, Brazil. NBL 90% values were estimated using statistical analyses followed by an analysis of seasonal influence on observed concentrations. The water was classified as calcium bicarbonate, with the highest NBL 90% values occurring during the rainy season for Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, SO4 2-, Cl-, NO3-, and As3+. On the other hand, Mg2+, Na+, PO4 3-, and Zn2+ presented reduction in concentration during this season. Nitrate, phosphate and chloride anomalies (values above NBL 90%) are directly related to human action. Thus, monitoring and proposing NBL 90% values were an essential tool to help in understanding the hydrochemical behavior of waters in this watershed.


Palavras-chave


Natural Background Level; São Miguel watershed; Arcos, Pains; Karst aquifers; Upper São Francisco Basin; Brazil.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2317-4889201820180071

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