Disposição geológica de rejeitos radioativos no Brasil: diretrizes de proteção radiológica, requisitos e avaliação de segurança

Paulo Fernando Lavalle Heilbron Filho, Corbiniano Silva, Rex Nazaré Alves, Ana Maria Xavier, Mônica Pereira Lavalle Heilbron, Claudio de Morisson Valeriano

Resumo


High-level radioactive waste and its safe final disposal is a complex problem; a few countries have managed to provide an adequate solution for it, since it contains highly radioactive materials that result from reactions occurring within nuclear reactors. Spent nuclear fuel may be considered a waste because it is no longer efficient in generating electricity due to decrease of the fission process. However, it is still thermally hot, highly radioactive, potentially harmful and must be handled and stored with care. Since the only natural way high level waste can lose their radioactive contents is through decay, hundreds of thousands of years would be necessary to become harmless, from a radiological point of view. Thus, to provide adequate protection of the public and environment for such long period of time, the only alternative for permanent disposal of this type of waste is a geological repository, whose complexity for site selection, construction and environmental licensing, among other aspects, is enormous. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), geological repositories are considered the main and most suitable solution for disposal of high level radioactive waste that remains dangerous for millions of years and needs to be completely isolated from biosphere. Therefore, this article, based on IAEA documents as well as on Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) requirements, points out the main aspects that should be considered for the licensing of geological disposal facilities in the country, including the most important aspects of radiation protection and other elements that must be taken into account during site selection, planning, construction, operation and closure of geological repositories.


Palavras-chave


Nuclear; High-level radioactive waste; Geological sites; Guidelines.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20396/td.v14i3.8651289

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